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Normal acid base balance

In this section there is a brief overview of control of acid-base balance. A tight control on [H \ensuremath{^+}] is necessary to ensure survival. The body has several methods to achieve homeostasis with respect to hydrogen ion concentration. This includes buffer systems, changes in the pH effected by excretion of CO \ensuremath{_2} by the lungs and changes in pH due to secretion of [H \ensuremath{^+}] by the kidneys.

The body is producing acid every day. This comes as volatile and fixed acid. The volatile acid is CO \ensuremath{_2} which is produced by oxidative metabolism, and the fixed acid by metabolism of dietry proteins.

Table 8: Acids
  Source Rate Elimination
Volatile CO \ensuremath{_2} 10 mmol per minute Lungs
Fixed Protein digestion 1 mmol per Kg weight per day Kidney


Adrian P. Ireland