Swallowing in the physiological mechanism whereby food and or fluid is passed from the mouth to the stomach.
Bolus refers to the material that is being moved from the mouth to the stomach in the process of swallowing.
Bolus obstruction occurs when a bolus gets stuck as it is being swallowed.
Dysphagia means difficulty in swallowing.
Odynaphagia means painful swallowing.
Vomiting is the retrograde movement of material from the stomach through the esophagus and out the mouth. It is accompanied by upper abdominal discomfort. It is a reflex type action that combines forceful contraction of the stomach with relaxation of the lower and upper esophageal sphincters.
Regurgitation is the retrograde movement of material from the stomach into the esophagus or from the esophagus into the mouth. It does not depend on forceful contraction of the stomach and is not a reflex action, it is often effortless and is only noted by the patient if they experience heartburn or they feel the material entering their mouth.