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TGF-$\beta $

As outlined above TGF-$\beta $ inhibits the production of most monokines and lymphokines. In this respect it is anti-inflammatory by reduction in release of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha $.

TGF-$\beta $ besides its anti-inflammatory effects is pro inflammatory. It acts as a chemoattractant for neutorphils, T cells and unactivated monocytes.

Systemic TGF-$\beta $ is anti-inflammatory while local TGF-$\beta $ is pro-inflammatory. It has an important role to play in scar formation and promotes neovascularisation and proliferation of connective tissue cells.

Adrian P. Ireland