As outlined above TGF- inhibits the production of most monokines and lymphokines. In this respect it is anti-inflammatory by reduction in release of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-.
TGF- besides its anti-inflammatory effects is pro inflammatory. It acts as a chemoattractant for neutorphils, T cells and unactivated monocytes.
Systemic TGF- is anti-inflammatory while local TGF- is pro-inflammatory. It has an important role to play in scar formation and promotes neovascularisation and proliferation of connective tissue cells.