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Pro-inflammatory cytokines

These inlcude IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-$\alpha $. Administration of antagonists to these agents such as IL-1ra (IL-1 receptor antagonist), or monoclonal antibodies against TNF-$\alpha $ and soluble TNF-receptor block acute and chronic inflammatory responses in animal models of inflammatory disease.

IL-1 and TNF-$\alpha $ are the main mediators involved in endotoxic shock.

Up regulation of the inflammatory response is also effected by IL-11, IF-$\gamma$ and by members of the chemokine superfamily.

Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13). And, production of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha $ is inhibited by TGF-$\beta $.


Adrian P. Ireland